Wireless charging has become a common feature in higher end cell phones since 2016. Even though Apple has been slow to introduce wireless charging in iPhones, the feature is now present in most models in their product lineup.
The principle of wireless charging is based on the principle of magnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday in 1831. Wireless charging is made possible by creating an electromagnetic field with induction coil within the wireless base charger. A second induction coil within the phone converts the power of the electromagnetic field into electricity, which is in turn stored in the phone's battery.
Because of the science behind wireless charging, not all phone cases are suitable to support that feature. For example, most metal cases have a negative effect on the aforementioned electromagnetic field. On the other hand, phones cases that are made with leather, and silicone work very well with wireless charging.
Another limitation on wireless charging is the thickness of the phone case. Although there is no specific maximum thickness that wireless charging cases have to adhere to, a good rule of thumb is to look for cases that are less than 3mm thick. A cases that is too thick (i.e. certain rugged phone cases) will seriously inhibit wireless charging.
Here's a 4-min short video explanation of wireless charging by Tinkernut.
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